Thinking Routines + Tools + Practices

The resources here are designed for both educator and learner use of the Agency by Design Framework for Maker-Centered Learning. In this collection you will find three sets of resources. Thinking Routines offer several mini-strategies to encourage active processing and build on learners’ background knowledge. Activities & Practices offer suggestions and guidelines for teaching a variety of maker-centered learning activities. The Documentation and Assessment Tools offer a range of techniques and activities that help learners and educators reflect on thinking and learning and be intentional in their efforts to improve the learning process. All of the tools are designed to help develop the maker capacities of Looking Closely, Exploring Complexity, and Finding Opportunity.

thinking routines

Parts, Purposes, Complexities

This thinking routine helps learners slow down and make careful, detailed observations by encouraging them to look beyond the obvious features of an object or system. This thinking routine helps stimulate curiosity, raises questions, and surfaces areas for further inquiry.

thinking routines

Parts, Purposes, Complexities

This thinking routine helps learners slow down and make careful, detailed observations by encouraging them to look beyond the obvious features of an object or system. This thinking routine helps stimulate curiosity, raises questions, and surfaces areas for further inquiry.

documentation and assessment tools

AbD Framework + Moves Handout

An easy reference handout of the Agency by Design Framework for Maker-Centered Learning.

documentation and assessment tools

AbD Framework + Moves Handout

An easy reference handout of the Agency by Design Framework for Maker-Centered Learning.

documentation and assessment tools

Making Moves: One Page Guide

The AbD Making Moves are a set of observable or actionable “moves” that learners and educators can use to help design maker-centered learning experiences, and to support, observe, document, and assess maker-centered learning.

documentation and assessment tools

Making Moves: One Page Guide

The AbD Making Moves are a set of observable or actionable “moves” that learners and educators can use to help design maker-centered learning experiences, and to support, observe, document, and assess maker-centered learning.

thinking routines

Parts, Perspectives, Me

This routine helps students explore complexity by encouraging them to look closely at the details of something, considering its various viewpoints, users, and stakeholders, and reflecting on their own connections and involvement with it.

thinking routines

Parts, Perspectives, Me

This routine helps students explore complexity by encouraging them to look closely at the details of something, considering its various viewpoints, users, and stakeholders, and reflecting on their own connections and involvement with it.

thinking routines

Parts, People, Interactions

This thinking routine helps learners slow down and look closely at a system. In doing so, young people are able to situate objects within systems and recognize the various people who participate—directly or indirectly—within a particular system.

thinking routines

Parts, People, Interactions

This thinking routine helps learners slow down and look closely at a system. In doing so, young people are able to situate objects within systems and recognize the various people who participate—directly or indirectly—within a particular system.

thinking routines

Think, Feel, Care

This routine encourages learners to consider the different and diverse perspectives held by the various people who interact within a particular system.

thinking routines

Think, Feel, Care

This routine encourages learners to consider the different and diverse perspectives held by the various people who interact within a particular system.

thinking routines

Imagine if...

This routine first encourages divergent thinking, as learners think of new possibilities for an object or system, and then encourages convergent thinking, as learners decide upon an effective approach to build, tinker, re/design, or hack an object or a system.

thinking routines

Imagine if...

This routine first encourages divergent thinking, as learners think of new possibilities for an object or system, and then encourages convergent thinking, as learners decide upon an effective approach to build, tinker, re/design, or hack an object or a system.

activities and practices

Voice and Choice: The Protocol

A protocol for looking closely at content, considering perspectives and representation, and then redesigning or reimagining that content from one's own perspective. Try out the accompanying Learner Workbook!

activities and practices

Voice and Choice: The Protocol

A protocol for looking closely at content, considering perspectives and representation, and then redesigning or reimagining that content from one's own perspective. Try out the accompanying Learner Workbook!

activities and practices

Voice and Choice: Learner Workbook

This Learn Workbook supports engagement with the Voice and Choice protocol. Created by Julie Rains.

activities and practices

Voice and Choice: Learner Workbook

This Learn Workbook supports engagement with the Voice and Choice protocol. Created by Julie Rains.

documentation and assessment tools

AbD Framework: A Guide for Learners

A resource for learners to explore the ways you can use the Agency by Design Framework and Making Moves/Indicators.

documentation and assessment tools

AbD Framework: A Guide for Learners

A resource for learners to explore the ways you can use the Agency by Design Framework and Making Moves/Indicators.

documentation and assessment tools

AbD Framework: A Guide for Educators

A resource for educators to explore the ways you can use the Agency by Design Framework and Making Moves/Indicators.

documentation and assessment tools

AbD Framework: A Guide for Educators

A resource for educators to explore the ways you can use the Agency by Design Framework and Making Moves/Indicators.

thinking routines

Reflect, Connect, Project

This thinking routine helps learners to think in the past, present, and future, viewing their making in the context of a long-term and broad trajectory of learning. It is meant to cultivate an ongoing reflective practice in the classroom.

thinking routines

Reflect, Connect, Project

This thinking routine helps learners to think in the past, present, and future, viewing their making in the context of a long-term and broad trajectory of learning. It is meant to cultivate an ongoing reflective practice in the classroom.

activities and practices

Materials Exploration

This practice promotes noticing, play, and exploration. When learners have time to tinker with materials they can gain an understanding of the affordances, possibilities, and constraints inherent in a variety of making materials.

activities and practices

Materials Exploration

This practice promotes noticing, play, and exploration. When learners have time to tinker with materials they can gain an understanding of the affordances, possibilities, and constraints inherent in a variety of making materials.

activities and practices

The Elaboration Game

This practice is designed to deepen learners’ sensitivity to design through drawing, observing, questioning, and collaborating. 

activities and practices

The Elaboration Game

This practice is designed to deepen learners’ sensitivity to design through drawing, observing, questioning, and collaborating. 

activities and practices

Learning Walk

This practice supports co-inspiration and the cross-pollination of ideas during maker-centered group work.

activities and practices

Learning Walk

This practice supports co-inspiration and the cross-pollination of ideas during maker-centered group work.

activities and practices

Mapping Systems

The practice of mapping allows learners to build and demonstrate their understanding of the parts, people, and interactions that comprise a given system.

activities and practices

Mapping Systems

The practice of mapping allows learners to build and demonstrate their understanding of the parts, people, and interactions that comprise a given system.

activities and practices

Memorable Making Experience

A conversation starter and reflective activity for introducing young people and adults to making.

activities and practices

Memorable Making Experience

A conversation starter and reflective activity for introducing young people and adults to making.

activities and practices

Observational Drawing

This practice allows learners to notice features of an object that they may not have the vocabulary to fully describe yet. By doing several sketches, learners have the chance to engage in perspective taking and to see details they might miss at first glance.

activities and practices

Observational Drawing

This practice allows learners to notice features of an object that they may not have the vocabulary to fully describe yet. By doing several sketches, learners have the chance to engage in perspective taking and to see details they might miss at first glance.

activities and practices

Take Apart

Mechanical dissections are a practice that allows learners to discover the often hidden design of objects.

activities and practices

Take Apart

Mechanical dissections are a practice that allows learners to discover the often hidden design of objects.

documentation and assessment tools

Tell Me More!

These conversation-starters help learners become sensitive to the presence of the Making Moves in their own and others’ learning. They also help learners have substantive conversations about the Making Moves with their peers.

documentation and assessment tools

Tell Me More!

These conversation-starters help learners become sensitive to the presence of the Making Moves in their own and others’ learning. They also help learners have substantive conversations about the Making Moves with their peers.

documentation and assessment tools

Maker Capacities: Observe/Reflect

This tool is connected to the Agency by Design Making Moves. The Making Moves identifies three maker capacities that support a sensitivity to design, along with their associated learning moves. Here you’ll find three observation sheets, one for each of the maker capacities:  Looking Closely, Exploring Complexity, and Finding Opportunity.<

documentation and assessment tools

Maker Capacities: Observe/Reflect

This tool is connected to the Agency by Design Making Moves. The Making Moves identifies three maker capacities that support a sensitivity to design, along with their associated learning moves. Here you’ll find three observation sheets, one for each of the maker capacities:  Looking Closely, Exploring Complexity, and Finding Opportunity.<

documentation and assessment tools

Documentation Templates

This tool is connected to the Agency by Design Making Moves. The Making Moves identifies three maker capacities that support a sensitivity to design, along with their associated learning moves. Here you’ll find three observation sheets, one for each of the maker capacities:  Looking Closely, Exploring Complexity, and Finding Opportunity.<

documentation and assessment tools

Documentation Templates

This tool is connected to the Agency by Design Making Moves. The Making Moves identifies three maker capacities that support a sensitivity to design, along with their associated learning moves. Here you’ll find three observation sheets, one for each of the maker capacities:  Looking Closely, Exploring Complexity, and Finding Opportunity.<

thinking routines

Partes, Propósitos, Complejidades

Esta rutina de pensamiento ayuda a los estudiantes a ir lentamente y observar detallada y cuidadosamente, al animarlos a mirar más allá de las características obvias de un objeto o sistema. Esta rutina de pensamiento estimula la curiosidad, plantea preguntas y hace evidente otras áreas para continuar la investigación.

thinking routines

Partes, Propósitos, Complejidades

Esta rutina de pensamiento ayuda a los estudiantes a ir lentamente y observar detallada y cuidadosamente, al animarlos a mirar más allá de las características obvias de un objeto o sistema. Esta rutina de pensamiento estimula la curiosidad, plantea preguntas y hace evidente otras áreas para continuar la investigación.

thinking routines

Partes, Personas, Interacciones

Esta rutina de pensamiento ayuda a los estudiantes a ir lentamente y observar de cerca un sistema.

thinking routines

Partes, Personas, Interacciones

Esta rutina de pensamiento ayuda a los estudiantes a ir lentamente y observar de cerca un sistema.

thinking routines

Pensar, Sentir, Preocuparse

Esta rutina anima a los estudiantes a considerar las diferentes perspectivas de diversas personas que interactúan dentro de un sistema en particular.

thinking routines

Pensar, Sentir, Preocuparse

Esta rutina anima a los estudiantes a considerar las diferentes perspectivas de diversas personas que interactúan dentro de un sistema en particular.

thinking routines

Imagíne si...

Esta rutina primero apoya el pensamiento divergente, a medida que los estudiantes piensan en nuevas posibilidades para un objeto o sistema; ​​luego apoya el pensamiento convergente, a medida que los estudiantes deciden la manera más efectiva para construir, manipular, re/diseñar o alterar un objeto o un sistema.

thinking routines

Imagíne si...

Esta rutina primero apoya el pensamiento divergente, a medida que los estudiantes piensan en nuevas posibilidades para un objeto o sistema; ​​luego apoya el pensamiento convergente, a medida que los estudiantes deciden la manera más efectiva para construir, manipular, re/diseñar o alterar un objeto o un sistema.

activities and practices

Design Hunt

This practice first encourages learners to observe the world around them and look for design, “in the wild,” taking a broad inventory of the designs they notice. Then it asks them to focus in on one object or system to consider the designer’s perspective or to propose redesign ideas.

activities and practices

Design Hunt

This practice first encourages learners to observe the world around them and look for design, “in the wild,” taking a broad inventory of the designs they notice. Then it asks them to focus in on one object or system to consider the designer’s perspective or to propose redesign ideas.

documentation and assessment tools

Inquiry Cycle Tool

The Inquiry Cycle is a tool to support teacher and student learning—and to make that learning visible—all the while exploring the capacities associated with the Agency by Design framework for maker-centered learning.

documentation and assessment tools

Inquiry Cycle Tool

The Inquiry Cycle is a tool to support teacher and student learning—and to make that learning visible—all the while exploring the capacities associated with the Agency by Design framework for maker-centered learning.

documentation and assessment tools

Looking at Student Work Protocol

A protocol that provides structure for collaboratively examining documentation that includes student’s products and processes and offers an opportunity for educators and learners to reflect back and plan for next steps.
documentation and assessment tools

Looking at Student Work Protocol

A protocol that provides structure for collaboratively examining documentation that includes student’s products and processes and offers an opportunity for educators and learners to reflect back and plan for next steps.
thinking routines

PENSE, SINTA, SE IMPORTE

Essa rotina encoraja os estudantes a considerarem as diversas perspectivas de quem interage em um sistema particular. O objetivo dessa rotina é ajudar os estudantes a entender no que as diversas pessoas que participam de um sistema pensam, o que sentem e com o que se importam de uma forma particular em função de sua posição no sistema.

thinking routines

PENSE, SINTA, SE IMPORTE

Essa rotina encoraja os estudantes a considerarem as diversas perspectivas de quem interage em um sistema particular. O objetivo dessa rotina é ajudar os estudantes a entender no que as diversas pessoas que participam de um sistema pensam, o que sentem e com o que se importam de uma forma particular em função de sua posição no sistema.

thinking routines

IMAGINE SE…

Inicialmente, essa rotina estimula o pensamento divergente, à medida que os estudantes pensam em novas possibilidades para um objeto ou um sistema; depois, o pensamento convergente é encorajado, à medida que os estudantes decidem a maneira mais eficaz de construir, explorar, re/desenhar ou hackear esse objeto ou esse sistema.

thinking routines

IMAGINE SE…

Inicialmente, essa rotina estimula o pensamento divergente, à medida que os estudantes pensam em novas possibilidades para um objeto ou um sistema; depois, o pensamento convergente é encorajado, à medida que os estudantes decidem a maneira mais eficaz de construir, explorar, re/desenhar ou hackear esse objeto ou esse sistema.

thinking routines

PARTES, PERSPECTIVAS, E EU

A rotina ajuda os estudantes a explorar a complexidade ao encorajá-los a olhar atentamente para os detalhes de algo, considerando uma variedade de pontos de vista, de usuários e de partes interessadas e refletindo sobre as próprias conexões e seu envolvimento com o objeto ou o sistema em questão.

thinking routines

PARTES, PERSPECTIVAS, E EU

A rotina ajuda os estudantes a explorar a complexidade ao encorajá-los a olhar atentamente para os detalhes de algo, considerando uma variedade de pontos de vista, de usuários e de partes interessadas e refletindo sobre as próprias conexões e seu envolvimento com o objeto ou o sistema em questão.

thinking routines

PARTES, PESSOAS, INTERAÇÕES

Essa rotina de pensamento ajuda os estudantes a desacelerar e a olhar atentamente para um sistema. Ao fazer isso, os jovens são capazes de situar objetos dentro de sistemas e reconhecer as várias pessoas que participam – direta ou indiretamente – de determinado sistema. 

thinking routines

PARTES, PESSOAS, INTERAÇÕES

Essa rotina de pensamento ajuda os estudantes a desacelerar e a olhar atentamente para um sistema. Ao fazer isso, os jovens são capazes de situar objetos dentro de sistemas e reconhecer as várias pessoas que participam – direta ou indiretamente – de determinado sistema. 

thinking routines

PARTES, PROPÓSITOS, COMPLEXIDADES

Essa rotina de pensamento ajuda os estudantes a desacelerar e a fazer observações detalhadas e cuidadosas, incentivando-os a olhar além das características óbvias de um objeto ou de um sistema. 

thinking routines

PARTES, PROPÓSITOS, COMPLEXIDADES

Essa rotina de pensamento ajuda os estudantes a desacelerar e a fazer observações detalhadas e cuidadosas, incentivando-os a olhar além das características óbvias de um objeto ou de um sistema. 

activities and practices

Voz y Decisión

 PROTOCOLO PARA ANALIZAR DE FORMA CRÍTICA UN CONTENIDO, CONSIDERANDO DIFERENTES PERSPECTIVAS Y REPRESENTACIÓN, PARA DESPUÉS REDISEÑAR O REIMAGINAR ESE CONTENIDO DESDE UNA PERSPECTIVA PROPIA.

activities and practices

Voz y Decisión

 PROTOCOLO PARA ANALIZAR DE FORMA CRÍTICA UN CONTENIDO, CONSIDERANDO DIFERENTES PERSPECTIVAS Y REPRESENTACIÓN, PARA DESPUÉS REDISEÑAR O REIMAGINAR ESE CONTENIDO DESDE UNA PERSPECTIVA PROPIA.

activities and practices

Voz y Decisión

activities and practices

Voz y Decisión

thinking routines

Imagine if... Adapted for Early Childhood Education

This routine encourages divergent thinking by prompting students to think of new possibilities for an object or system. It can also encourage convergent thinking by giving students a basis from which to narrow down their ideas so they can redesign or hack an object or a system. Ultimately, this thinking routine is about finding opportunity and p

thinking routines

Imagine if... Adapted for Early Childhood Education

This routine encourages divergent thinking by prompting students to think of new possibilities for an object or system. It can also encourage convergent thinking by giving students a basis from which to narrow down their ideas so they can redesign or hack an object or a system. Ultimately, this thinking routine is about finding opportunity and p

thinking routines

“推進創新” 的思考模式

這個思考模式鼓勵學生從多方面思考,為一件物品/系統思考各種新的可能性。然後再鼓勵學生把新想法融合起來,決定一個有效率的方法去完善,重新設計,和拆解物件/系統。最終,這個思考模式是用於尋找新的設計機會以及實施新的想法的。

thinking routines

“推進創新” 的思考模式

這個思考模式鼓勵學生從多方面思考,為一件物品/系統思考各種新的可能性。然後再鼓勵學生把新想法融合起來,決定一個有效率的方法去完善,重新設計,和拆解物件/系統。最終,這個思考模式是用於尋找新的設計機會以及實施新的想法的。

thinking routines

Mapping Systems Experiences

This tool guides young learners to look closely at a system and explore its complexity by directly experiencing the system and reflecting on that experience. This is particularly helpful when working with very young students who may struggle to conceptualize a complex system without direct experience. In addition, this tool provides suggestions

thinking routines

Mapping Systems Experiences

This tool guides young learners to look closely at a system and explore its complexity by directly experiencing the system and reflecting on that experience. This is particularly helpful when working with very young students who may struggle to conceptualize a complex system without direct experience. In addition, this tool provides suggestions

thinking routines

My Perspectives, Other Perspectives - Adapted for Early Childhood Education

The routine helps students explore complexity by encouraging them to consider that people may have different experiences with and perspectives on the same object or system. This routine also encourages students to think more carefully about how the object or system impacts their lives and the lives of others.

thinking routines

My Perspectives, Other Perspectives - Adapted for Early Childhood Education

The routine helps students explore complexity by encouraging them to consider that people may have different experiences with and perspectives on the same object or system. This routine also encourages students to think more carefully about how the object or system impacts their lives and the lives of others.

thinking routines

Parts, People, Interactions - Adapted for Early Childhood Education

This routine encourages learners to slow down and look closely at a system. It helps them notice that there are different people who participate in the system and that they participate in different ways. It also encourages students to explore how one change in a system can impact the rest of the system. This thinking routine can help foster curi

thinking routines

Parts, People, Interactions - Adapted for Early Childhood Education

This routine encourages learners to slow down and look closely at a system. It helps them notice that there are different people who participate in the system and that they participate in different ways. It also encourages students to explore how one change in a system can impact the rest of the system. This thinking routine can help foster curi

thinking routines

“聯系互動” 的思考模式

這個思考模式鼓勵學生能夠慢下来,仔细觀察其中一個系统。通過這樣幫助學生更好地認識具體系統裡無論是直接或間接相關的人物,學生也會注意到系统裡任何一點變化,也許都會有意無意地影響到系统的其它方面。

thinking routines

“聯系互動” 的思考模式

這個思考模式鼓勵學生能夠慢下来,仔细觀察其中一個系统。通過這樣幫助學生更好地認識具體系統裡無論是直接或間接相關的人物,學生也會注意到系统裡任何一點變化,也許都會有意無意地影響到系统的其它方面。

thinking routines

Parts, Purposes, Complexities - Adapted for Early Childhood Education

This routine encourages learners to slow down and make careful, detailed observations as they look beyond the obvious features of an object or system and think about how it works. This thinking routine can help foster curiosity as children notice details, ask questions, make connections, and identify topics for future inquiry.

thinking routines

Parts, Purposes, Complexities - Adapted for Early Childhood Education

This routine encourages learners to slow down and make careful, detailed observations as they look beyond the obvious features of an object or system and think about how it works. This thinking routine can help foster curiosity as children notice details, ask questions, make connections, and identify topics for future inquiry.

thinking routines

“深入拆解” 的思考模式

這個思考模式通過讓學生慢慢、細心地觀察物件和系統中的細節,鼓勵他們不止觀察物件的表面特徵,更重要的是了解其內部運作。這個思考模式可以激發學生的好奇心,鼓勵他們勇於提出問題,並且能做更深入的研究。

thinking routines

“深入拆解” 的思考模式

這個思考模式通過讓學生慢慢、細心地觀察物件和系統中的細節,鼓勵他們不止觀察物件的表面特徵,更重要的是了解其內部運作。這個思考模式可以激發學生的好奇心,鼓勵他們勇於提出問題,並且能做更深入的研究。

thinking routines

Playing Around With Roles

Engaging young learners in exploring complexity and finding opportunities to make systems better requires perspective taking and empathy. Role playing can be a powerful approach to support learners in taking others’ perspectives when exploring the roles, ideas, and feelings of different characters in a system. Here we offer a few thoughts on h

thinking routines

Playing Around With Roles

Engaging young learners in exploring complexity and finding opportunities to make systems better requires perspective taking and empathy. Role playing can be a powerful approach to support learners in taking others’ perspectives when exploring the roles, ideas, and feelings of different characters in a system. Here we offer a few thoughts on h

thinking routines

The MCL Hacker Helper

Just as the broader Agency by Design framework for maker-centered learning encourages people to be active creators of the designed world, the Hacker Helper Tool invites educators to view the breadth of educator resources associated with the Agency by Design framework as malleable. This tool provides prompts to support educators

thinking routines

The MCL Hacker Helper

Just as the broader Agency by Design framework for maker-centered learning encourages people to be active creators of the designed world, the Hacker Helper Tool invites educators to view the breadth of educator resources associated with the Agency by Design framework as malleable. This tool provides prompts to support educators

thinking routines

Think, Feel, Care - Adapted for Early Childhood Education

This routine encourages students to consider the diverse perspectives that different people within a particular system may have based on their role in the system. This routine fosters perspective taking and can help children generate new questions and/or ideas about the system, how it works, and how it might be improved.

thinking routines

Think, Feel, Care - Adapted for Early Childhood Education

This routine encourages students to consider the diverse perspectives that different people within a particular system may have based on their role in the system. This routine fosters perspective taking and can help children generate new questions and/or ideas about the system, how it works, and how it might be improved.

thinking routines

“換位思考” 的思考模式

這個思考模式鼓勵學生在一個特定的系統裡思考不同人物的觀點。其目標是幫助學生理解系統裡的不同角色,他們會用什麼形式去表達感受以及對系統裡其他人物和事物的關心。這個思考模式引導學生從多角度去提出問題並表達觀點。

thinking routines

“換位思考” 的思考模式

這個思考模式鼓勵學生在一個特定的系統裡思考不同人物的觀點。其目標是幫助學生理解系統裡的不同角色,他們會用什麼形式去表達感受以及對系統裡其他人物和事物的關心。這個思考模式引導學生從多角度去提出問題並表達觀點。

thinking routines

“另眼相看” 的思考模式

這個思考模式通過幫助學生近距離觀察某個物品/系統的細節,考慮不同的使用者和利益相關者不同的觀點角度,以反思自己和這個物品/系統的關係來探究其中的關聯性。

thinking routines

“另眼相看” 的思考模式

這個思考模式通過幫助學生近距離觀察某個物品/系統的細節,考慮不同的使用者和利益相關者不同的觀點角度,以反思自己和這個物品/系統的關係來探究其中的關聯性。

thinking routines

“推进创新” 的思考模式 (简体版)

这个思考模式鼓励学生多方面思考,为一件物品/系统思考各种新的可能性。然后再鼓励学生把新想法融合起来,决定一个有效率的方法去完善,从新设计,和拆解物件/系统。

thinking routines

“推进创新” 的思考模式 (简体版)

这个思考模式鼓励学生多方面思考,为一件物品/系统思考各种新的可能性。然后再鼓励学生把新想法融合起来,决定一个有效率的方法去完善,从新设计,和拆解物件/系统。

thinking routines

“联系互动” 的思考模式 (简体版)

这个思考模式鼓励学生能够慢下来,仔细观察其中一个系统。通过这样帮助学生更好地认识具体系统里无论是直接或间接相关的人物,学生也会注意到系统里任何一点变化,也许都会有意无意地影响到系统的其它方面。

thinking routines

“联系互动” 的思考模式 (简体版)

这个思考模式鼓励学生能够慢下来,仔细观察其中一个系统。通过这样帮助学生更好地认识具体系统里无论是直接或间接相关的人物,学生也会注意到系统里任何一点变化,也许都会有意无意地影响到系统的其它方面。

thinking routines

“另眼相看” 的思考模式 (简体版)

这个思考模式通过帮助学生近距离观察某个物品/系统的细节,考虑不同的使用者和利益相关者不同的观点角度,以反思自己和这个物品/系统的关系来探究其中的关联性。

thinking routines

“另眼相看” 的思考模式 (简体版)

这个思考模式通过帮助学生近距离观察某个物品/系统的细节,考虑不同的使用者和利益相关者不同的观点角度,以反思自己和这个物品/系统的关系来探究其中的关联性。

thinking routines

“换位思考”的思考模式 (简体版)

这个思考模式鼓励学生在一个特定的系统里思考不同人物的观点。其目标是帮助学生理解系统里的不同角色,他们会用什么形式去表达感受以及对系统里其他人物和事物的关心。

thinking routines

“换位思考”的思考模式 (简体版)

这个思考模式鼓励学生在一个特定的系统里思考不同人物的观点。其目标是帮助学生理解系统里的不同角色,他们会用什么形式去表达感受以及对系统里其他人物和事物的关心。

thinking routines

“深入拆解”的思考模式 (简体版)

这个思考模式通过让学生慢慢、细心地观察物件和系统中的细节,鼓励他们不止观察物件的表面特征,更重要的是了解其内部运作。

thinking routines

“深入拆解”的思考模式 (简体版)

这个思考模式通过让学生慢慢、细心地观察物件和系统中的细节,鼓励他们不止观察物件的表面特征,更重要的是了解其内部运作。